National Institute of Plant Genome Research
Digital India   Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav     
    Dr. Senjuti Sinharoy
    Staff Scientist V
    National Institute of Plant Genome Research
    Phone: 91-11-26741612/14/17 Extn. 214
    Direct: 91-11-26735214
 Professional & Academic Background
Staff Scientist IV (July 2020- present): National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi.
Staff Scientist III (April 2017- June 2020): National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi.
Ramalingwaswami Fellow (June 2015-March 2017): University of Calcutta, Department of Biotechnology.
Research Scientist (2015): The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, USA.
Post-Doctoral Fellow (2010-2014): The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, USA.
Ph.D (2004-2009): University of Calcutta, Department of Biochemistry.
M.Sc. (2001-2003): in Biochemistry from University of Calcutta, Department of Biochemistry.
 Awards & Fellowships
SERB-Early Career Research Award from the Department of Science and Technology, India (2019)
Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship (2013-2014) Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, India.
Junior Research Fellowship and Lectureship in National Eligibility Test (NET) (2003) in Life Sciences, India.
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE), (2003) in Life Sciences, India.
 Research Interests

Nitrogen is indispensable for any form of life. Only prokaryotes can reduce gaseous nitrogen to ammonia, which can then be utilized by other eukaryotes. Discovery of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer has revolutionized food production worldwide but at substantial economic and environmental cost. Legumes, being capable of hosting biological nitrogen-fixing bacteria, are blessed with their own supply of nitrogen. Legumes host these bacteria inside a newly developed organ-like structure called nodules. The de novo development of nodules involves de-differentiation of an already differentiated tissue and a huge change of gene expression.

My lab investigates the basic molecular mechanism of root nodule symbiosis (RNS) in legumes. We also try to understand how RNS has evolved in legumes. Presently, we are working on Cicer (Chickpea), Medicago (Alfalfa) and Arachis (Peanut) to understand their root nodule developmental program. Few specific questions we are trying to answer are: 1. How does the host plant guide the bacteria from the free-living lifestyle to an endocytic lifestyle? 2.  How does the host plant represses the defense response to accommodate the symbiont? 3. What are the genetic differences that causes the difference in nitrogen- fixation efficiency between legumes?
 Group Members
Interested to join our lab?

Highly motivated researchers, interested in Plant-microbe symbiosis are welcome to contact the PI.
 Selected Publications
Bhattacharjee O, Raul B, Ghosh A, Bhardwaj A, Bandyopadhyay K, and Sinharoy S, (2022). Nodule INception-independent epidermal events lead to bacterial entry during nodule development in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). New Phytologist, 236(6):2265-2281.
Raul B, Sinharoy S 2022. An Improvised Hairy Root Transformation Method for Efficient Gene Silencing in Roots and Nodules of Arachis hypogaea. In: Mysore KS, Senthil-Kumar M eds. Plant Gene Silencing: Methods and Protocols. New York, NY: Springer US, 303-316.
Raul B, Bhattacharjee O, Ghosh A, Upadhyay P, Tembhare K, Singh A, Shaheen T, Ghosh A, Torres-Jerez I, Krom N, Clevenger J, Udvardi M, Scheffler B, Ozias Akins P, Dutta Sharma R, Bandyopadhyay K, Gaur V, Kumar S, and Sinharoy S* (2022) Microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of Dalbergoid legume peanut reveal a divergent evolution leading to Nod Factor dependent epidermal crack-entry and terminal bacteroid differentiation. Mol Plant Microbe Interact DOI/10.1094/MPMI-05-21-0122-R
Mandal D, Sinharoy S. (2019) A Toolbox for Nodule Development Studies in Chickpea: A Hairy-Root Transformation Protocol and an Efficient Laboratory Strain of Mesorhizobium sp. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. Apr;32(4):367-378.
Bertioli et al., (2019)  The genome sequence of segmental allotetraploid peanut Arachis hypogaea. Nat Genet. 2019 May;51(5):877-884.
Pislariu CI, Sinharoy S, Torres-Jerez I, Nakashima J, Blancaflor EB, Udvardi MK. (2019) The nodule-specific PLAT-domain protein NPD1 is required for nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Plant Physiol. (In Press).
Kryvoruchko IS*, Routray P*, Sinharoy S*, Torres-Jerez I, Tejada-Jiménez M, Finney LA, Nakashima J, Pislariu CI, Benedito VA, González-Guerrero M, Roberts DM, Udvardi MK. (2018) An Iron-Activated Citrate Transporter, MtMATE67, Is Required for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation. Mar;176(3):2315-2329. *Equally contributed.
Kryvoruchko I*, Sinharoy S*, Ivone Torres-Jerez, Davide Sosso, Catalina Pislariu, Vagner A. Benedito, Wolf Frommer, and Michael Udvardi. (2016) MtSWEET11, a sucrose transporter in the symbiosome membrane of Medicago truncatula root nodules is partially redundant for nitrogen fixation. Plant Physiology 171(1): 554-65, *Equally contributed.
Sinharoy S, Liu C., Breakspear A, Guan D, Jiangqi W, Murray J, Udvardi M, (2016). Cystathionine Beta Synthase domain-containing protein is required for infection thread propagation and nodule development in Medicago. Plant Physiology 170(4): 2204-17.
Veerappan V, Kadel K, Alexis N, Scott A, Kryvoruchko I, Sinharoy S, Taylor M, Udvardi M and Dickstein R (2014). Keel petal incision: a simple and efficient method for genetic crossing in Medicago truncatula. Plant Methods 10, 11.
Dai X*, Sinharoy S*, Udvardi M and Zhao PX (2013). PlantTFcat: an online plant transcription factor and transcriptional regulator categorization and analysis tool. BMC Bioinformatics 14, 321. * Equally contributed.
Sinharoy S, Torres-Jerez I, Bandyopadhyay K, Kereszt A, Pislariu CI, Nakashima J, Benedito VA, Kondorosi E and Udvardi MK (2013). The C2H2 transcription factor regulator of symbiosome differentiation represses transcription of the secretory pathway gene VAMP721a and promotes symbiosome development in Medicago truncatula. Plant Cell 25, 3584-601.
Samaddar S, Dutta A, Sinharoy S, Paul A, Bhattacharya A, Saha S, Chien KY, Goshe MB and DasGupta M. (2013). Autophosphorylation of gatekeeper tyrosine by symbiosis receptor kinase. FEBS Lett 587, 2972-9.
Young ND, Debellé F, Oldroyd GE, Geurts R, Cannon SB, Udvardi MK, Benedito VA, Mayer KF, Gouzy J, Schoof H, Van de Peer Y, Proost S, Cook DR, Meyers BC, Spannagl M, Cheung F, De Mita S, Krishnakumar V, Gundlach H, Zhou S, Mudge J, Bharti AK, Murray JD, Naoumkina MA, Rosen B, Silverstein KA, Tang H, Rombauts S, Zhao PX, Zhou P, Barbe V, Bardou P, Bechner M, Bellec A, Berger A, Bergès H, Bidwell S, Bisseling T, Choisne N, Couloux A, Denny R, Deshpande S, Dai X, Doyle JJ, Dudez AM, Farmer AD, Fouteau S, Franken C, Gibelin C, Gish J, Goldstein S, González AJ, Green PJ, Hallab A, Hartog M, Hua A, Humphray SJ, Jeong DH, Jing Y, Jöcker A, Kenton SM, Kim DJ, Klee K, Lai H, Lang C, Lin S, Macmil SL, Magdelenat G, Matthews L, McCorrison J, Monaghan EL, Mun JH, Najar FZ, Nicholson C, Noirot C, O'Bleness M, Paule CR, Poulain J, Prion F, Qin B, Qu C, Retzel EF, Riddle C, Sallet E, Samain S, Samson N, Sanders I, Saurat O, Scarpelli C, Schiex T, Segurens B, Severin AJ, Sherrier DJ, Shi R, Sims S, Singer SR, Sinharoy S, Sterck L, Viollet A, Wang BB, Wang K, Wang M, Wang X, Warfsmann J, Weissenbach J, White DD, White JD, Wiley GB, Wincker P, Xing Y, Yang L, Yao Z, Ying F, Zhai J, Zhou L, Zuber A, Dénarié J, Dixon RA, May GD, Schwartz DC, Rogers J, Quétier F, Town CD, Roe BA. (2011) The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses. Nature.  480, 520.
Sinharoy S, Saha S, Chaudhury SR and Dasgupta M. (2009). Transformed hairy roots of Arachis hypogea: a tool for studying root nodule symbiosis in a non-infection thread legume of the Aeschynomeneae tribe. Mol. Plant Microbe. Interact 22, 132-42.
Sinharoy S and DasGupta M. (2009). RNA interference highlights the role of CCaMK in dissemination of endosymbionts in the Aeschynomeneae legume Arachis. Mol. Plant Microbe. Interact 22, 1466-75.
Yun Kang, Minguye Li, Sinharoy S and Verdier J (2016) A Snapshot of Functional Genetic Studies in Medicago truncatula. Front Plant Sci. 2016; 7: 1175.
 Edited Book
'The Medicago truncatula Genome' as a part of Compendium Plant Genomes. ISBN 978-3-030-90756-3. Expect to be online January 2022.
 Book Chapters
Bhardwaj, A., Sinharoy, S.* (2022). Understanding of Root Nodule Development at Level of System Biology as Obtained by High Throughput Transcriptomic Approach. In: Sinharoy, S., Kang, Y., Benedito, V. (eds) The Medicago truncatula Genome. Compendium of Plant Genomes. Springer, pp 91-101.
Bhardwaj, A., Sinharoy, S.* (2022). Transcriptional Networks in Medicago truncatula: Genomic and Functional Overview During Root Nodule Symbiosis. In: Sinharoy, S., Kang, Y., Benedito, V. (eds) The Medicago truncatula Genome. Compendium of Plant Genomes. Springer, pp 71-90.
Sinharoy S, Catalina I. Pislariu and Michael K. Udvardi (2015) A High-Throughput RNA Interference (RNAi)-Based Approach Using Hairy Roots for the Study of Plant–Rhizobia Interactions. Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume: 1287   Plant Gene Silencing, pp. 159-178. Edited by Kirankumar S. Mysore and Muthappa Senthil-Kumar.
Sinharoy S, Igor S. Kryvoruchko, Catalina I. Pislariu, Manuel González-Guerrero, Vagner A. Benedito, and Michael K. Udvardi (2015) Functional genomics of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes with a focus on transcription factors and membrane transporters. The Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Publishers: John Wiley & Sons, Inc Chapter 82, pp 823-836. Edited by Frans J. de Bruijn.
Catalina I. Pislariu, Sinharoy S, JiangQi Wen, Jeremy D. Murray2, Pascal Ratet3, and Michael K. Udvardi. (2015) Tobacco retrotransposon (Tnt1)-insertion mutagenesis in Medicago as a tool for genetic dissection of symbiosis in legumes. The Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Publishers: John Wiley & Sons, Inc Chapter 83, pp 837- 854. Edited by Frans J. de Bruijn.
Sinharoy S, Samaddar S, Dutta S, Saha S, Raichaudhuri A, Maity MK and DasGupta M (2011) Deciphering the Molecular Code that predisposed plants to Root Nodule Symbiosis. Plant Tissue Culture and Applied Plant Biotechnology. Aavishkar Publishers.